Large groups and their lobbyists have a considerable influence on EU trade policy. While the EU describes consultations with «stakeholders» as a way to gather expertise and assess the concerns of all stakeholders, from trade unions to NGOs to businesses, the reality is that this process is dominated by large companies. In fact, 88% of all meetings with DG Commerce on TTIP negotiations with companies, compared to only 9% with public stakeholders. However, there are signs that the UK government may prefer, as in the case of the withdrawal agreement, the new trade agreement to enter into force with primary laws. This may be even faster than the usual process and would also allow necessary changes to existing legislation to be made or a new law required by the agreement to be introduced. Under these conditions, and with the vast majority of the British government, it is unlikely that the agreement will be blocked in the British Parliament. The European Court of Justice has ruled that the provisions relating to arbitration between the investor state (including a special tribunal under some free trade agreements) fall within the shared jurisdiction between the European Union and its Member States and that, for this reason, their ratification should be authorised by both the EU and each of the 28 Member States.  EU officials have often said that Brussels will not be unplugged during the talks, but it may be necessary to announce that ratification is no longer possible before 31 December. In some circumstances, trade negotiations with a trading partner have been concluded, but have not yet been signed or ratified.
This means that, although the negotiations are over, no part of the agreement is yet in force. The European Commission reports annually on the implementation of its main trade agreements in the previous calendar year. On the EU side, ratification must be subject to the approval of the European Parliament (by a simple majority of all votes cast) and the Council of the European Union (by qualified majority). If this proves impossible, the EU has the option of provisionally implementing the agreement from the signing, which requires only the approval of the Council and information from Parliament. CetA`s «Environment» chapter contains only weak and non-binding commitments to environmental protection and a weak enforcement mechanism, which relies mainly on dialogue, without the citizens concerned being able to address the negative impact that trade can have on the environment.